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Year End Income Tax Planning

Don’t Wait For A Last Minute Miracle:
Get Busy Now on Year End Tax Planning

As the year-end quickly approaches, there is still time to do some year-end tax planning.  This 2013 tax year will be tough on many taxpayers due to recent tax law changes and the uncertain future of tax reform.  Basically, taxpayers will have to deal with the following recent tax law changes:

  • Higher marginal income tax rates.
  • Higher capital gain tax rates.
  • Restoration of the phase out of itemized deductions and exemptions.
  • The new 3.8 percent Medicare tax on unearned income, including interest, dividends and capital gains. etc.  For more details please read 2013 Sneaky New Tax – Not Too Early to Plan for 3.8 % Medicare Tax on Investment Income.
  • The new 0.9 percent tax on earned income in excess of $200,000 for single taxpayers and $250,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly.
  • Same Sex Couples:  The recent Supreme Court decision in Windsor may result in same-sex couples with dual income paying more income taxes filing jointly than if they were still able to file singly.

As always, it is essential to know the customary year-end planning techniques that can cut income taxes.  It all starts with a tax projection of whether you will be in a higher or lower tax bracket next year. Once your tax brackets for this year and next year are known, there are two basic income tax planning considerations:

  • Should income be accelerated or deferred?
  • Should deductions and credits be accelerated or deferred?

However, life is never that simple.  Tax law uncertainty, always makes for some real guesswork.  As discussed below, when it comes to certain deductions that have tax threshold limitations, bunching of deductions to one year may force the timing into a tax year where the tax bracket is lower than the other tax year in question. But this may be the only way to get a tax break for these deductions.

As a further irritant, year-end tax projections must take into account the maddening alternative minimum tax and the new parallel universe of the 3.8% medicare tax.  Yikes.

For discussion purposes, the following strategies assume that the taxpayer’s income will be higher next year.  Where income will be taxed at a higher tax bracket next year, accelerating income to this year results in less taxes being paid.  At the same time deductions and tax credits deferred into next year will become more valuable as they offset income taxed at a higher marginal bracket.

Accelerating income to the current year and deferring deductions must take into account the impact on cash flow and the time value of money when paying taxes on income a year earlier.  However, due to our current low-interest rate environment, time value of money implications are quite minimal and may not be a significant consideration.

If a taxpayer expects income to decrease next year they should use the opposite approach.

So be sure to remember that the following lays out the basic ideas for income acceleration and deduction/credit deferral where income projects to be taxed at a higher level next year.

Income Acceleration: 

For taxpayers who think that they will be in a higher tax bracket next year, here are some targeted forms of income to consider accelerating into this year.

  • Bonuses: Receive bonuses before January 1 of the following year.  If your employer allows you the choice, this may result in some significant income tax savings to you.
  • Accelerate billing and collections.  If you report income on a cash basis method of accounting, immediately sending out bills to increase collections before the end of the year may result in significant tax savings if you know income will be much higher next year.
  • For Salary and Wages and Earned Income: Take Into Account the New 0.9% wage tax:  High income earners will pay an extra 0.9% in social security taxes on earned income above certain thresholds starting in 2013.  Where earned income is low this year and is going up next year, accelerating earned income into the current year may cut this wage tax on earned income entirely.
  • Redeem U.S. Savings Bonds, Certificates of Deposit or Annuities:  Taking these items into income this year may make sense where income projects to be higher next year. (Be sure there are no penalties or surrender charges involved.)  Also where income this year will be below the new 3.8 percent Medicare tax threshold, accelerating this passive income may completely avoid this Medicare tax.  For more on this read 2013 Sneaky New Tax – Not Too Early to Plan for 3.8 % Medicare Tax on Investment Income.
  • Capital Gains: Selling appreciated assets if you expect capital gains at a higher rate next year:  In such situation it may make sense to sell such assets before the end of the year.  For a complete discussion of this issue please see 2012 Year End Tax Planning: Should Taxpayers Sell in 2012 Before Rates Rise?  

Example:  Mr. Appreciation has low basis stock that has appreciated in value. The rate for capital gains can rise as taxable income increases.  So before selling any securities he needs to run the numbers to see if it makes sense to sell this year or next year or spread such sales between the two years. He also needs to consider in the 3.8 percent surcharge on capital gains and how such decision impacts itemized deduction limitations.

Important Planning Point:  For an older taxpayer or one in ill-health, this strategy may not make income tax sense.  When a person dies their assets get a step up in basis to the date of death value.  As a result, when the estate sells such assets there is no capital gain.  So a sale right before death would trigger a needless capital gain tax.

Planning Note:  The wash sale rules do not apply when selling at a gain, so taxpayers can cash out their gains and then repurchase identical securities immediately afterwards.

  • Complete Roth conversions.  Taking into income the monies in IRA accounts in a year before your tax bracket is due to rise may make for some significant tax savings.
  • Accelerate debt forgiveness income with your lender.  In addition to being taxed at a lower tax bracket this year, acceleration also may make sense because of the possibility that tax law reform may end this tax break.  See Expiring Provisions below.
  • Maximize retirement distributions.  Remember the minimum required distributions (MRDs) are the amounts distributed each year to avoid the draconian 50% MRD penalty.  However, taxpayers with IRAs can choose to take larger distributions this year to have such income taxed at a lower income tax rate than the one projected in future years.
  • Electing out or selling outstanding installment contracts.  Disposing of your installment agreement may bring the deferred income into this year at a lower tax rate than anticipated in future years.  It may be helpful to pay tax on the entire gain from an installment sale this year by electing out of installment sale treatment under Section 453(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, rather than deferring tax on the gain to later years.  Conversely, in certain situations installment sale treatment may be a better option since it allows for spreading of income over multiple years.  So it really depends on the specifics of each taxpayer’s tax situation.
  • Take corporate liquidation distributions this year.  Senior or retiring stockholders contemplating the redemption or sale of their shares of stock in their corporation can save considerable taxes by selling their shares this year if their expected tax bracket will be higher in later years.  Warning:  On the other hand consider carefully the step-up in basis implications for older or infirm taxpayers before considering this tax maneuver.

Deductions and Tax Credit Deferrals:

For taxpayers who think that they will be in a higher tax bracket next year, here are some actions to consider in deferring deductions into next year.  Remember, we are assuming that income will be higher next year, so deductions are more valuable next year.  (Obviously, if income is higher this year, it is better to have deductions accelerated into this year).  In any event, taxpayers must watch out for the impact of the alternative minimum tax.

  • Bunch itemized deductions into the year in which they can exceed the applicable threshold.  For certain expenses such as elective surgery, dental work, eye exams, it would be better to have it done in the year that you are already above the applicable AGI threshold.
  • Where income will be greater next year, taking the standard deduction this year and bunching itemized deductions to next year would yield an optimum tax result.
  • For medical expenses, the adjusted gross income (AGI) limitation rises to 10% in 2013 for those under age 65.  Those over age 65 still have an AGI limitation of 7.5%.  Taxpayers at age 64 this year and 65 next year may want to bunch elective medical procedures into next year to get over the lower threshold next year.
  • Postpone paying certain tax-deductible bills until next year to generate a greater tax benefit.
  • Pay fourth quarter state estimated tax installment on January 15 of next year.
  • Postpone “economic performance” for tax-deductible expenses until next year if you are an accrual basis taxpayer.
  • As mentioned above, watch the AMT. Missing the impact of the AMT can make certain year-end strategies counterproductive. For example, aligning certain income and deductions to cut regular tax liability may not work if the deductions reduce regular income but do not cut alternative minimum taxable income.  It is very easy to have your tax planning backfire by missing the difference between the regular tax and AMT tax rules.
    • Example and Important Warning: Do not prepay state and local income taxes or property taxes if subject to the AMT.  It will generate no income tax savings.
  • Watch net investment interest restrictions.
  • Match passive activity income and losses.
  • Harvest tax losses by selling securities or mutual funds.  Selling shares of stock or mutual funds that have gone down in value can offset capital gains and generate a tax loss of up to $3,000 against other income.
    • Warning: If you want to buy back the same security beware of the so-called “wash sale” rules.  These rules are complex but with proper planning losses can be taken while avoiding the wash loss limitation rules.
  • Purchase machinery and equipment before the end of 2013.  Even if you are in a higher tax bracket next year, it may make sense to take advantage of the generous current Section 179 deductions and 50% bonus depreciation.  These tax breaks may not last past 2013.  Or they may be significantly reduced next year.

Other Strategies:

  • Credit Cards To Claim Deductions:  Expenses charged to credit cards before year-end are deductible this year even though paid next year.  Use credit cards to pay:
    • Business Expenses
    • Medical Expenses
    • Property Taxes
    • Other deductions
  • Increase Withholding:  Many taxpayers pay both estimated taxes and withholding taxes. If you have fallen behind on quarterly estimates, it may be a good idea to increase withholding on your remaining wages to avoid underpayment penalties.
    • Key Tax Planning Point: The IRS treats withheld taxes as if spread out evenly throughout the year. This strategy can cut or even eliminate penalties for the failure to pay timely.
  • Do not invest in mutual funds at year-end:  Many mutual funds pay accumulated dividends and capital gains in November and December.  This will result in a needless tax bill and a rude surprise come tax time for the unknowing investor.

Expiring Provisions:

In the past, Congress has extended many, but not all, expiring provisions to future years.  However, there is a lot of uncertainty now as there is talk of major tax reform and still out of control budget deficits.  Prudence may dictate the possible loss of some of the following tax provisions:

  • Sales Tax Deductions:  This deduction has an uncertain future.  So for those in low or no income tax states or who are contemplating a very large purchase, completion before year-end may be warranted.
  • IRA Distributions To Charity:  This provision also faces an unknown future.  Currently, the tax law allows those age 70 1/2 and older to make required distributions directly to charity.  This allows them to avoid income taxation on such distributions.  Note: They do not also get a charitable deduction for such contribution.
  • Discharge of Principal Residence Debt:  Taxpayers who get discharged from debt on their home can avoid being taxed on this form of income.  Those taxpayers involved in a foreclosure should complete this transaction before year-end in the event this law is eliminated next year.
  • Other Expiring Tax Breaks where the taxpayer may want to consider paying before year-end:
    • Residential Energy Property Tax Credit
    • Qualified Tuition Deduction
    • Contribution of Real Estate for Conservation
    • Teachers Classroom Deduction
    • Qualified Tuition Deduction
    • Van-pooling or Mass Transit Benefits
    • Mortgage Insurance Premiums

Final Thoughts and Warnings:

Remember that these are just some of the major year-end income tax strategies and are not all-encompassing.  Taxpayers must take into account possible tax law changes for next year and last-minute tax laws enacted before year-end.

Most importantly remember that income tax strategies depend on the specific income or expenses of each taxpayer and their overall income, gift and estate tax setting.  This discussion offers some, but not all tax strategies.

The one certainty in this uncertain tax environment is to “run the numbers” to find the best approach for each taxpayer’s particular tax and financial situation.

As always, it is quite beneficial to have tax counsel look at the details of your particular income tax situation to carve out specific tax strategies to cut taxes owed.

I hope this article has been of value to my readers. Please feel free to contact me, ask a question or make comments below.

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With less than 30 days left in 2012, there is still time to do some year-end tax planning.  This 2012 tax year is more difficult in that no one knows how the tax laws may change before the end of the year.  With certain tax deductions and credits due to expire at the end of 2012 (sunset provisions) and new higher tax brackets kicking in next year (end of the Bush-era tax cuts), year-end tax planning is harder than ever.

However, income tax planning must go on even in this uncertain tax environment.  As a result, it is essential to know the customary year-end planning techniques that cut income taxes.

It all starts with a tax projection of whether you will be in a higher or lower tax bracket next year. Once your tax brackets for 2012 and 2013 are known, there are two basic income tax considerations:

  • Should income be accelerated or deferred?
  • Should deductions and credits be accelerated or deferred?

Example: For income taxed at a higher tax bracket next year, accelerating such income to 2012 results in less taxes being paid.  At the same time deductions and tax credits deferred into next year will become more valuable as they offset income taxed at a higher bracket.

However, life is never that simple.  Tax law uncertainty, especially this year, makes for some real guesswork.  As discussed below, when it comes to certain deductions that have tax threshold limitations, bunching of deductions to one year may force the timing into a tax year where the tax bracket is lower than the other tax year in question. Year end tax projections must take into account the maddening alternative minimum tax.

In any event, the following lays out the basic ideas for income acceleration and deduction/credit deferral in a rising income tax bracket environment.

Income Acceleration: 

For taxpayers who think that they will be in a higher tax bracket, here are some targeted forms of income to consider accelerating into 2012.

  • Receive bonuses before January 1, 2013.  If your employer allows you the choice, this may create some significant income tax savings.  Also, be aware that certain high income earners will pay an extra 0.9% in social security taxes on earned income above certain thresholds starting in 2013.
  • Sell appreciated assets.  With capital gains being taxed at a higher rate in 2013, it may make sense to sell such assets before the end of the year.  For a complete discussion of this issue please see 2012 Year End Tax Planning: Should Taxpayers Sell in 2012 Before Rates Rise?  Important 

Example:  Mr. Appreciation has low basis stock that has appreciated by $200,000 as of December, 2012.  He thinks he will need to liquidate his positions either this year or next. His $200,000 gain will generate $30,000 in federal taxes in 2012 (15% tax).  If Mr. Appreciation waits until 2013, the tax rate may be 25% (or more due to the 2013 higher capital gain rate and 3.8 percent surcharge and itemized deduction limitations) with a tax of $50,000 in 2013.  As a result,  a sale in 2012 may save $20,000.

Note, however, that for an older taxpayer or one in ill-health, this strategy may not make sense since there would be no capital gains (because of the step up in basis rules) if the assets passed through his or her estate.

Planning Note:  The wash sale rules do not apply when selling at a gain, so taxpayers can cash out their gains and then repurchase the securities immediately afterwards.

  • Redeem U.S. Savings Bonds.  Be aware that starting in 2013, a new 3.8 percent Medicare tax on unearned income, including interest, dividends and capital gains, will take effect.  So cashing in these bonds may make sense in the proper situation. For more on this read 2013 Sneaky New Tax – Not Too Early to Plan for 3.8 % Medicare Tax on Investment Income.
  • Complete Roth conversions.  Taking into income the monies in IRA accounts in a year before your tax bracket is due to rise may make for some significant tax savings.
  • Accelerate debt forgiveness income with your lender.
  • Maximize retirement distributions.  Remember the minimum required distributions (MRDs) are the amounts distributed each year to avoid the draconian 50% MRD penalty.  However, taxpayers with IRAs can choose to take larger distributions this year to have such income taxed at a lower income tax rate than in 2013.
  • Electing out or selling outstanding installment contracts.  Disposing of your installment agreement may bring the deferred income into 2012 at a lower tax rate than anticipated in future years.  It may be helpful to pay tax on the entire gain from an installment sale in 2012 by electing out of installment sale treatment under Section 453(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, rather than deferring tax on the gain to later years.  Conversely, in certain situations installment sale treatment may be a better option since it allows for spreading of income over multiple years which may keep taxpayers below the modified adjusted gross income threshold.
  • Accelerate billing and collections.  If you report income on a cash basis method of accounting, immediately sending out bills to increase collections before the end of the year may result in significant tax savings.
  • Take corporate liquidation distributions in 2012.  Senior or retiring stockholders contemplating the redemption or sale of their shares of stock in their corporation can save considerable taxes by selling their shares in 2012.

Deductions and Tax Credit Deferrals:

  • Bunch itemized deductions into 2013 and take the standard deduction into 2012.  Note, however, the AGI limitation rises to 10% in 2013 from the current 7.5% (except for those over age 65), so this limitation may dictate the opposite strategy in certain taxpayer situations.
  • Postpone paying certain tax-deductible bills until 2013.
  • Pay last state estimated tax installment in 2013.
  • Postpone economic performance until 2013 if you are an accrual basis taxpayer.
  • Watch adjusted gross income (“AGI”)  limitations on deductions/credits.  For certain expenses such as elective surgery, dental work, eye exams, it would be better to have it done in the year that you are already above the applicable  AGI  threshold.  However, it may be better to incur these expenses in 2012 where the applicable AGI limit (7.5%) is lower than the 2013 limit (10 % for those under 65).  It all depends on the particulars of each taxpayer.
  • As mentioned above, watch the AMT. Missing the impact of the AMT can make certain year-end strategies counterproductive. For example, aligning certain income and deductions to cut regular tax liability may in fact increase AMT liability.  It is very easy to have your tax planning backfire by missing the difference between the regular tax and AMT tax rules.

Example: Do not prepay state and local income taxes or property taxes if subject to the AMT.  It will generate no income tax benefit.

  • Watch net investment interest restrictions.
  • Match passive activity income and losses.
  • Purchase machinery and equipment before the end of 2012.  The very generous current Section 179 deductions decline in 2013 to $25,000 and there is no 50% bonus depreciation in 2013.

Final Thoughts and Warnings:

Remember that these are some of the customary year-end income tax strategies and are not all-encompassing.  Taxpayers must take into account slated tax law changes for next year and last-minute tax laws enacted before year-end.  Accelerating tax payments must take into account the impact on cash flow and the present value of money.  This is why it is essential to “run the numbers” to find the best steps to reduce the impact of these new tax laws.

Also keep in mind that recent tax law changes, like the 3.8 medicare tax that applies to 2013, bear heavily on income tax planning.  For more details please read 2013 Sneaky New Tax – Not Too Early to Plan for 3.8 % Medicare Tax on Investment Income.

Most importantly remember that income tax strategies depend on the specific income or expenses of each taxpayer and their overall income, gift and estate tax setting.  This discussion offers some but not all tax strategies.

As always, it is quite beneficial to have tax counsel look at the details of your particular income tax situation to carve out specific tax strategies to cut taxes owed.

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In our fast paced world, many retirement plans are drafted and then often neglected.  In extreme cases, plans are put aside without ever being updated.  Some plan sponsors have failed to restate their plans for years or even decades.  For many individuals, retirement plan accounts represent the largest portion of their wealth.  As the following discussion will illustrate, the failure to protect this most valuable and important asset by keeping the retirement plan in full compliance with applicable retirement plan laws could result in some very nasty, costly and unforeseen financial repercussions.

The retirement plan laws have always required that plans be updated for tax law changes.  Before 2003, the IRS allowed plans to be periodically restated for tax law changes that occurred over many years.  This resulted in large, periodic major plan restatements.  However, since 2003 the IRS has required amendments to retirement plans for each new tax law resulting in more frequent “interim amendments.”  [For those of you interested in a more detailed discussion of these required interim amendments since 2003, please go to my questions answered at my Linked-In profile.]  For many plans, the deadlines for many of these plan restatements or interim amendments have now expired.  Current rules provide that plans that have not been redrafted to comply with required prior restatements or interim amendments cease to be qualified as of their applicable deadlines.

In the worst case scenario, the IRS may demand that the plan be retroactively disqualified.  If the IRS is successful in disqualifying the plan, the plan sponsor’s tax deductions for contributions taken in the year of disqualification and in later years would be disallowed.  The taxes owed by the plan sponsor due to the disallowance of previously claimed retirement plan deductions plus applicable interest and penalties could be enormous.  In addition, participants of the plan would have to treat as taxable income the value of their plan account as of the date of such disqualification.  The taxes, interest and penalties to the participants from the date of plan disqualification could be equally exorbitant. This would be a truly disastrous and harsh result for both the employer plan sponsor and participants in the disqualified plan.

However, in most cases, the current policy of the IRS is to impose monetary penalties instead of the more severe penalty of plan disqualification.  Even so, when the IRS raises these failures as the result of an audit the penalties can be quite severe.   Penalties can range from $2,500 to $80,000 depending on the failures involved and the size of the plan.  It is worth noting that in recent years, the IRS has increased its auditing of retirement plans.

 Here is Good News: How to Solve This Looming Problem 

The IRS has a voluntary remedial program called the VCP (voluntary compliance program) to correct these plan document deficiencies.  The IRS position is that retirement plans may be re-qualified only by having the plan sponsor voluntarily come forward before an IRS audit by submitting the newly drafted delinquent restatements and/or interim amendments to the IRS in accordance with some very detailed procedures and documentation pursuant to Revenue Procedure 2008-50.  Once the IRS reviews and hopefully approves the application and the newly drafted required documentation, the plan is deemed to be in full compliance with applicable law and such plan is retroactively tax qualified.

Instead of paying a steep monetary penalty, the VCP submission results in the paying of a filing fee to the IRS.  Sometimes, if the violation is quite limited the filing fee can be as low as $375.  (Remember, you will still need to pay for documentation services associated with plan restatements and interim amendments.  However, these costs would have been incurred in any event to keep your plan in full compliance with the law.)  The important point here is that the use of the VCP program avoids the risk of plan disqualification or the imposition of a large monetary penalty.

 How We Can Help:

Numerous VCP program applications under the applicable Revenue Procedure 2008-50 have been submitted by this office.  This application along with the needed plan restatements and interim amendments must be carefully drafted to ensure efficient negotiations and a successful outcome with the IRS.

The Bottom Line:

Plan sponsors should immediately and voluntarily move to correct plan deficiencies pursuant to the more taxpayer friendly and cheaper VCP program before the IRS audits your plan.  Once the IRS commences an audit, the VCP submission strategy is no longer an option and your plan is exposed to disqualification and/or severe monetary penalties.

Looking forward, you must establish a program with your plan adviser to ensure that your plan is kept in compliance with the laws concerning plan restatements, interim amendments and the changing IRS submission requirements and deadlines.  This will avoid having to deal with all of these problems again in the future.  In fact, the Revenue Procedure requires a disclosure in the VCP application as to what new procedures the plan sponsors will use to avoid this problem in the future.

 Do Not Wait

Do not wait for the IRS to audit your retirement plan as it then will be too late to get the cheaper and less painful VCP deal.  For a free initial consult to assess your retirement plan situation, please do not hesitate to call me, Steven J. Fromm, Esquire at 215-735-2336.  All consultations are confidential and covered by attorney-client privilege.

Copyright © 2009, Steven J. Fromm

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As with most things in life, when things are bad, there usually is something good that can come out of it.  Our current economic troubles have resulted in many closely held or small businesses being worth far less then they used to be.  This is not a good situation for businesses that are hanging on to survive or have to be sold for various reasons.  However, for people wanting to minimize estate and gift taxes and have been putting off taking a cold hard look at their estate plan, now may be the perfect time to explore the gifting of shares in their businesses.

For example, some businesses have senior family members who own all or most of the shares of the outstanding stock of their corporation.  With the value of the business being down right now, more shares could be gifted to younger family members involved in the business.

Example:  Mr. Senior owns 80% of Deflated, Inc., while his two sons who work in the business own 10% each.  Deflated was worth $3,000,000 in 2007.  By the end of 2008, it was worth $2,500,000.  Mr. Senior talks to tax counsel and after exploring the tax strategies and planning tools discussed below decides to gift 20% of his shares worth $500,000 to each of his sons, leaving him with a 40% stock interest.

The tax advantages are as follows:

1.  The stock gifted to each son was previously worth $600,000. The current market value of such stock to each son is now only $500,000.  If Deflated, Inc. goes back to its value once the economy recovers, then Mr. Senior has just transferred $200,000 ($100,000 to each son) to his sons estate and gift tax free.  At a current marginal estate tax rate of 45%, Mr. Senior’s family can save $90,000 (45%*$200,000).

2.  The gifts to each son are gifts of a minority interest in Deflated, Inc. and such gifts lack marketability due to the limited market for such shares.  Estate and gift tax rules allow discounts for these factors that reduce the value of assets transferred.  (Caveat: There are some legislative proposals being floated in Washington seeking to limit this tax strategy. Stay tuned.) These discounts for minority interests and lack of marketability conservatively can be 25%, sometimes more.   With such discounts the gift of each $500,000 is reduced by $125,000. At a current marginal estate tax rate of 45%, Mr. Senior’s family can save another $112,500 (45%*$250,000).

3.  Outright gifts of stock are eligible for the annual donee exclusion of $13,000.  In addition, Mr. Senior has a spouse who will join in this gift, which will allow for a second $13,000 exclusion.  So the taxable gift to each son is now reduced by $26,000 (Mr. Senior’s annual exclusion of  $13,000 and his spousal joinder of another $13,000).  Additional savings to the family is $23,400 (45%*26,000*2 sons).

4.  If Mr. Senior makes no further gifts and dies with his reduced ownership interest of 40%,  his estate can claim the minority interest and lack of marketability discounts against his remaining shares.  If Mr. Senior dies in 2014, when deflated is worth $4,000,000, his family can take a 25% lack of marketability/minority interest discount, saving his family another $180,000 (45%*$400,000 marketability/minority interest discount[$1,600,000 forty-percent interest*25%]).

Bottom Line:  Mr. Senior can take advantage of the lousy economy, the lack of marketability and minority interest discounts and the annual donee exclusions with a spousal joinder to save his family a tremendous amount of future estate and inheritance taxes.

Caveat:  Remember that this type of planning depends on the particular factual setting of each client.  One difference in the facts can change the outcome.  Also, be aware that state inheritance taxes have not been considered in the above example.  Finally, the above should not be considered as legal advice.  Please consult with tax counsel to discuss your particular factual situation.

Copyright © 2009, Steven J. Fromm.

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